campaign Campaign Can Save Half a Million Lives and
The truth(R) youth anti-smoking
campaign has the power to save hundreds of thousands
of lives and billions of dollars in smoking-related
health care costs and productivity losses, according
to the Citizens' Commission to Protect the Truth, a group
composed of every former U.S. Secretary of Health,
Education and Welfare and Health and Human Services, with
the exception of Michael Leavitt; every former U.S.
Surgeon General; and every former Director of the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, one-third of young smokers will die
prematurely from smoking-related diseases. Since 80%
of adult smokers began using tobacco products before the
age of 18, the hundreds of thousands of children who opt
not to smoke because of their exposure to truth(R) will
almost certainly not become adult smokers. Source: Citizens' Commission to Protect the Truth
Mystery shoppers cut
Enforcement of laws against
the sale of cigarettes to minors does result in a
reduction in underage smoking. Research published in the
open access journal BMC Public Health provides the first
evidence that enforcement programmes can be effective on a
The cost to government of
enforcing the law is around $150 per retailer per year.
The authors point out that an extra two-cent tax on
tobacco products would be sufficient to fund a
comprehensive enforcement system. Cigarette price
increases were estimated to be about twice as effective as
sales enforcement in reducing underage smoking, but, as
the authors conclude, "There is no reason why
policy makers should choose between these approaches - all
effective measures to reduce smoking among youth should be
Enforcement of underage sales
laws as a predictor of daily smoking among adolescents - a
national study Joseph R DiFranza, Judith A Savageau and
Kenneth Fletcher, BMC Public Health 04 09
Report Concludes That Tobacco Marketing and Smoking in
Movies Promote Youth Smoking - NCI Report Recommends
Strategies to Win the War Against Nation's Leading
Cause of Preventable Death
Leaders from the federal government and the nation's public
health community announced the release of an authoritative
National Cancer Institute report that reaches the
government's strongest conclusion to date that tobacco
marketing and depictions of smoking in movies promote
youth smoking. The 684-page report, The Role of
the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use,
presents definitive conclusions that a) tobacco advertising
and promotion are causally related to increased tobacco use,
and b) exposure to depictions of smoking in movies is
causally related to youth smoking initiation.
The report also concludes that mass media campaigns can
reduce smoking, especially when combined with other
tobacco control strategies. However, youth smoking
prevention campaigns sponsored by the tobacco industry have
been generally ineffective and may actually have increased
This report provides the most current and comprehensive
analysis of more than 1,000 scientific studies on the role
of the media in encouraging and discouraging tobacco use.
The report is Monograph 19 in the National Cancer
Institute's Tobacco Control Monograph series examining
critical issues in tobacco prevention and control. Research
included in the review comes from the disciplines of
marketing, psychology, communications, statistics,
epidemiology, and public health.
"The media have been used to promote cigarettes and
smoking through infamous advertising icons - such as
the Marlboro Man and Joe Camel - and through tobacco images
in Hollywood movies. The media have also been used to
increase smoking cessation and reduce smoking
initiation, through paid advertising campaigns and public
service announcements about the dangers of smoking.
This monograph presents the most current and comprehensive
analysis of the scientific evidence on the impact of these
forces, and other media exposures, on beliefs, attitudes,
and behaviors concerning tobacco use," said Ronald M. Davis,
M.D., senior scientific editor, director of the Henry Ford
Health System's Center for Health Promotion and Disease
Prevention, and Immediate Past President of the American
The monograph also concludes that:
Cigarettes are one of the most heavily marketed
products in the United States. Between 1940 and
2005, U.S. cigarette manufacturers spent about $250
billion (in 2006 dollars) on cigarette advertising
and promotion. In 2005, the industry spent $13.5 billion
(in 2006 dollars) on cigarette advertising and promotion
in the U.S. - $37 million per day on average.
advertising targets the psychological needs of
adolescents, such as popularity, peer acceptance and
positive self-image. Advertising creates the perception
that smoking will satisfy these needs.
exposure to tobacco advertising influences adolescents'
attitudes and perceptions about smoking and smokers, and
adolescents' intentions to smoke.
of cigarette smoking is pervasive in movies, occurring
in three-quarters or more of contemporary box-office
hits. Identifiable cigarette brands appear in about
one-third of movies.
by a nation's constitution, a comprehensive ban on
tobacco advertising and promotion is an effective policy
intervention that prevents tobacco companies from
shifting marketing expenditures to permitted media.
tobacco industry works hard to impede tobacco control
media campaigns, including attempts to prevent or
reduce their funding.
industry and tobacco control forces are harnessing the media
to influence the attitudes and behavior of the American
public. In today's media landscape, which has expanded
beyond traditional channels such as newspapers, magazines,
radio, and television to the Internet and interactive video
gaming -- the challenge is even more urgent. Although 46
million Americans have stopped smoking, 45 million Americans
- about 20 percent of American adults - still smoke and
nearly 4,000 adolescents smoke their first cigarette each
day. Tobacco use is the single
largest cause of preventable death in the
United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, cigarette smoking is responsible for more
than 400,000 premature deaths per year and reduces the life
expectancy of smokers by an average of 14 years.
The editors of the monograph outline several steps that have
been proposed to reduce use of the media in promoting
tobacco use and increase its use in discouraging tobacco
- Impose a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising and
- Adequately fund mass media campaigns and protect them from
tobacco industry efforts to impede them;
- Monitor tobacco industry activities including public
relations and advertising expenditures in a changing media
- Use research to inform tobacco control policy and program
- Place anti-tobacco advertisements before films to
partially counter the impact of tobacco portrayals in
- Increase public awareness of tobacco industry
attempts to shut down public health campaigns.
"The tobacco industry tried for five years to shut down our
successful truth (R) youth smoking prevention campaign,"
said Dr. Cheryl Healton, president and CEO of the American
Legacy Foundation. Truth (R) has been credited with 22
percent of the overall decline in youth smoking during its
first two years, from 2000-2002. "Ninety percent of adult
smokers began before the age of 20, so cultivating new
smokers is critical to Big Tobacco's business model, to
replace the more than 400,000 adults who die from
tobacco annually with new smokers. Keeping young
people from starting to smoke is a critical part of the
equation if we want to make major strides toward saving
lives. Bold, effective counter-marketing campaigns that
reduce smoking rates and change social norms are proven
effective in doing just that," she said.
"This report sends a loud and clear message to
policy-makers: We need less tobacco company marketing and
more anti-tobacco advertising," said William V. Corr,
Executive Director of the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids.
"It shows why we need strong regulation of tobacco products
and their marketing to prevent tobacco companies from
continuing to target our children. It also should prompt
states to fully fund tobacco prevention and cessation
campaigns that are proven to work. And it should spur
governments worldwide to implement the international tobacco
control treaty, which calls on governments to ban all
tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship and fund
effective public education campaigns."
Lindsay Doran, a Hollywood producer, is a vocal advocate
within the entertainment industry for keeping smoking out of
films seen by youth. Former president and COO of United
Artists, Doran has overseen numerous Academy Award and
Golden Globe winning films throughout her career including
Ghost, Sense and Sensibility, Ferris Bueller's Day Off,
Stranger than Fiction and Nanny McPhee. She has worked for
years to educate her Hollywood colleagues about the dangers
of on-screen smoking and feels her biggest obstacle has been
persuading directors, actors, producers and studio
executives that there really is a causal relationship
between on-screen smoking and children starting to smoke.
"I'm very glad that the federal government has thrown its
weight behind this important issue," she said. "Filmmakers
are usually very concerned with issues of social
responsibility - that's what many of our best films are
about. But they need more education, especially about the
very young age at which most people start to smoke, and more
proof that the smoking in our movies and TV shows, if
presented irresponsibly, can actually be the same as handing
a 12-year-old a cigarette."
"This new report provides compelling evidence that the
tobacco industry continues to market to our children," said
Georges C. Benjamin, MD, FACP, FACEP (E), executive director
of the American Public Health Association. "It is essential
that we protect the health of our nation's youth by halting
promotion aimed at encouraging our kids to take up smoking."
Source: American Legacy
Foundation, 21 Aug 2008
This report sends a loud and clear message to the nation's
policy-makers: We need less tobacco company marketing and
more anti-tobacco advertising. According to the most recent
data, tobacco company marketing expenditures exceed state
anti-tobacco efforts by a margin of more than 18 to one. In
2005, the tobacco industry spent
$13.4 billion to market their deadly and addictive
products in the U.S., according to the
Federal Trade Commission. In comparison, states spent just
$717 million on tobacco prevention programs last year.
Tobacco prevention and cessation programs: Both the
federal government and the states should increase funding
for tobacco prevention and cessation programs, including
mass media advertising campaigns. As the NCI report
concludes, these campaigns are proven effective at
preventing kids from smoking and encouraging smokers to
quit. The report finds that advertising campaigns are
especially effective when combined with community based
programs and when part of a comprehensive approach to
reducing tobacco use including higher tobacco taxes and
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death ...
Source: Campaign for
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